Photovoltaic market grew in NMS from 486 MW in 2009 to 2165 MW of cumulative installed power in 2010. Although the PV NMS market is still rather small, it has vast potential to become a considerable part of RES market in the EU. However it is necessary to note that this grow is mainly (90%) due to 1820 MW installed in the Czech Republic. Czech market has become really overheated and only 130 M will be installed in 2011.
Fig. 1. Cumulative installed PV power in the NMS (2005-2011)
Fig. 2. Cumulative installed PV power in the NMS (2010).
Table 1. Cumulative installed PV power in NMS (2005-2011).
Fig. 3. Big PV systems installed in the Czech Republic
With 1953 MW of cumulative installed solar capacity the Czech Republic is the leader of the region and the third country in Europe regarding PV installed capacity in 2010. During the year 2010 was installed 1357,08 MW. Out of that approximately: 1491 in the under 30 kWp category, 2,6% in the 30 kWp - 100 kWp one and 93,1% in the over 100 kWp one. (Source: Energy Regulatory Office).
Czech solar market owned this staggering take-up to favourable FIT with small yearly digression and stronger national currency as well as the price of modules fall. Additionally, the Czech market has become really overheated. There were some 6.000 MW of registered systems on distribution system operators lists, mostly speculative. The sector developed to the extent where the growth restriction had to be considered. A result of that is the current moratorium on all new PV system grid connection applications.
Fig. 4. PV system in Dívćice (2.9MWp)
Fig . 5. Cumulative installed PV power in Czech Republic (2005-2011)
PV market grew only by 11,5 MW, so total accumulated PV capacity reached 17,2 MW. About five 1 MW and three 2 MW on-grid plants have been installed. The PV modules from different manufacturers are used. The specific yield of the installed PV plants is in the range 1100 - 1500 kWh/kWp. It is expected that about 110 MW will be installed in 2011. Interest in the small PV installation is increasing; however no support investments are envisaged at the moment.
Fig. 6. The first large PV installation, Zornitza, Bulgaria.
Fig . 7. Cumulative installed PV power in Bulgaria (2005-2011).
In 2010 Cyprus total installed PV capacity attained 6,2 MW. During the year 178 new small PV grid connected systems were installed with total power 5,56 MW. Cyprus energy market still is dominated by oil products. With one of the highest irradiation, PV could easily supply the overall Cyprus electricity demand. In 2010, the interest of the public regarding PV investment increased and at the end of the year 1380 applications regarding subsidy for PV installations were submitted. The total power of these systems is around 20 MW and is expected to be installed during the period 2011-2012. Moreover it is expected that the total power of PV systems in Cyprus will increase significantly the following years significantly reaching a rate of 5 MW annually.
Fig . 8. Cumulative installed PV power in Cyprus (2005-2011).
24 MW cumulative installed PV power (predominantly on-grid) in 2010 only is a remarkable upswing. In 2008 the biggest PV plant was 100 kW in 2009 with 220 kW and in 2010 many PV plants of the range of 1 MW went in operation mounted on land and on the roofs.
Main investors of PV plants are energy companies, other companies and institutions, farmers and individuals. Farmers' interest in PV installation grow thank to the investment subsidy from regional grow thank to the investment subsidy from regional the roof the formal procedure is quite simple, without the construction permit and without the limitation regarding installed capacity. For ground PVS installation a construction permit, together with all related procedures are requested. Additionally there is a cap of 5 MW per year for ground PVS installations. That means that only the first PV plants connected to the grid, up to cumulative 5 MW per year, could get the guaranteed higher FIT tariff.
Fig . 9. Cumulative installed PV power in Slovenia (2005-2011).
Hungarian PV sector is growing slowly but the trend is stable. Year 2010 better in this matter, market grew by 1,1 MW and reached 1,75 MW.
Fig . 10. Cumulative installed PV power in Hungary (2005-2011).
The first rise in 2009 came as a result of the support instruments provided by the European Regional Development Fund scheme managed by Malta Enterprise (ME) for commercial and industrial sector. 2010 did not show particular uptake due to non-visibility and uncertainty related to the setting up of a FiT regulation which eventually was set late in September 2010. Following this legislation, as the mechanisms had been clearly defined a high interest was shown and systems started being registered in late December. Hence it is being expected that when these systems will get installed, Malta would have around 4,9 MW of installed PV capacity. The number of residential installations in Malta still prevail and these account for 27% of total installed PV capacity.
Fig . 11. Cumulative installed PV power in Malta (2005-2011).
Year 2010 did not bring any uptake on Polish PV market. With about 400 kWp of new capacity. Currently the total installed power amounts to 1,75 MW, mostly off-grid. The major obstacle is the lack of feed in tariffs for PV (and other RES too). Only this incentive can drive the strong growth of PV sector in Poland.
Fig . 12. Cumulative installed PV power in Poland (2005-2011).
The cumulated installed power in 2010 amounts to 1940 kWp, out of which 1330 kWp - on grid and 610 kWp off-grid. For 2011 there are already obtained power purchase agreements for grid connected PV solar plants with a total power of 203,5 MW. Moderate development of PV market in Romania pales in comparison to Bulgaria's uptake, considering similar irradiation of the two countries.The reason why the majority of installations are off-grid is the fact that the law 220/2008 introducing significant subsidies for grid connected systems has not entered yet into force.
Fig . 13. Cumulative installed PV power in Romania (2005-2011).
145 MW of PV power capacity has been installed in Slovakia in 2010 due to the introduction of favourable FIT from January 2010 (Act no. 309/2009). The Act guarantees the FiT, with the value set annually by the Decree of the Regulatory Office for Network Industries, for 15 years. The Act also guaranteed entry to the distribution network and priority connection to the distribution network. Electricity produced from PV is purchasing by the Distribution System Operator that also adopts a responsibility for deviation of installations up to 4 MW installed capacity.
The FiT for systems which capacity does not exceed 100 kW was set to 430,72 EUR/MWh and for systems bigger than 100 kW it was set to 425,12 EUR/MWh. As a consequence of this, PV power jumped from 200 kW to 145 MW. From January 2011, the FiT was decreased by 10% and further decrease by 33% (to 259,17 EUR/MWh is expected for systems which capacity does not exceed 100 kW from 01 July 2011.
Fig . 14. Cumulative installed PV power in Slovakia (2005-2011).
PV installed capacity at the end of year 2009 was 8 kW. FIT adopted at the beginning of 2009 fostered slightly the growth of PV installations in Latvia and in 2010 installed capacity was 18 kW. Substantial growth is planned for 2011 - up to 1500 kW on-grid installations are expected in Latvia.
Although during 2010, as in the previous years, the Lithuanian PV sector experienced negligible growth and still amount to approximately 100 kW, mostly off-grid. Industry sources estimate, that projects for up to 20 MW of installed power might currently be in different planning and permission request stages, but their progress is heavily dependent on the expected changes in legislation - progress of currently submitted drafts of new National Energy Strategy and new law on Renewable Energy Sources submitted to Lithuanian parliament (Seimas).
In 2009 Estonia did not register any growth in use of PV for energy production maintaining 15 kW of total cumulative capacity. All installed PV systems are stand-alone used in locations far from the grid, especially in small islands. All Estonian stand- alone lighthouses and sea marks have PV- electricity supply.
To get the wider overview of the status of PV, two countries associated with EU have been included: Croatia and Turkey.
2004 Croatia became the EU official candidate member state. Its young and promising market is a challenging opportunity for investors. Despite Croatia’s great solar potential, its cumulative on-grid PV power capacity in 2010 totalled 414 kWp, of which only 53 kW (4 installations) receive subsidized electricity price (feed-in tariff). Off-grid capacity is estimated to the 500 kW. High irradiation in Croatian coastal area gives hope that the future of PV market in Croatia would be brighter.
According to the Croatian Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship the cumulative capacity of all the registered projects amount for 24 MW. Provisions contained in a draft of new Croatian Energy Strategy (established in late 2008) indicate that PV capacity shall account for 45 MW by 2020.
Turkey has the sixth-largest electricity market in Europe and one of the fastest growing in the world. Turkey is a member of the OECD and the G-20. Diplomatic negotiations for EU membership has been under progress with continuing alignments on the acqui. In the accession process to the EU, some of the short-term identified priorities in energy are; energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, development of the administrative capacity in these energy sectors.
The installed electricity production, capacity of Turkey has reached 46 631,5 MW by the end of 2010 which consists of 66% conventional thermal, 32% hydroelectric and about 2% new renewable energy power plants. The existing power plants capacity and the capacity to be completed by 2018 (~15 GW) are expected to be insufficient to cover the fast growing “Base Energy Demand” of Turkey.
The photovoltaic offers a significant opportunity for electricity production in Turkey. A current estimation for a total suitable feasible land for a large scale PV installation in Turkey is over 11000 km2. On those sites it is calculated that almost 300 GWp ground installations are feasible. A rough calculation shows that annual PV electricity production of 400 - 450 TWh for fixed systems and over 600 TWh for double axis tracker systems are possible on those sites. Despite these attractive conditions the total PV installation in Turkey it is estimated to be under 10 MWp.